Saturday, September 14, 2019

Pak Study Notes

PAKISTAN STUDIES DOWNFALL OF MUSLIMS IN SUBCONTINENT Eighteenth century witnessed major change in to two continents of the world i. e; Europe and Asia In Europe strong monarchies and corporate communities or merchant communities were on the rise where as india the Rule of Muslims in India were taking last breath. Several causes lead to the decline of muslims power in India contributory factors which proved last straw for muslim empire in India. )No suceesion Plan:- first and Major reason of decline of Muslim rule in Indian subcontinent was that there was no succession in muslims after the death of one king his brothers, sons fought with each other at that time Darwinian theory of â€Å"survival of fittest† was suited to Indian kings where only powerfull has ascend to throne and weaker was killed or incarcinated. )Geographical expansion of The empire:- The second reason was that the empire of muslim was vast it stratches from Present india, Pakistan and Afghanistan it was near to impossible to govern that vast area while sitting in one capital city which ultimately creates the feeling of sovereignty in small states which lead to unrest in small states. 3)Deterioration of Morality:- Most of Kings were fond of liquior and women these two factors lead the way for decline of Mugh al Empire abundance of wealth, luxurious life and leisure made them reckless and incompetent to rule. ) Lack of orginised Army specialy Navay:- Muslims were lacked the orginised Army after death of jehangir the commanders of the Army were involved in conspiricies in order to get to the throne where as their main foucs was the power then to concentrate on Preparation to face aggression from out side. Portougees, French and English entered through sea route for commercial purposes where they captured coastal areas and built their Garrisons and formed strong orginsied force consist of locals as well their own manpower. )Intellectual Bankrupcy:- As muslim rules indulged in immoral activi ties there concentration to create a viable education has diverted to leisure and luxurious life†¦.. 6)Corrupt administration:- Minsters,courtiers accepted bribes which ultimately weakend the foundation of Muslim rule in Indian . 7)Invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmed shah Abdali:- Invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmed shah abdali in india aggrandized the situation for rulers destruction of dehli loot and plunder of Nadir shah has weaknd the authority of rulers and the empire had become economically weak. )Rise of Sikhs and Marahtas:- During the days of farukhsiar and jahandar shah Banda Bahadar has killed the governor of sirhandi wazir khan and captured the area where as nationalism of Marahtas also rose to the extent that their influence was to the Dehli. 9)Advent of East india Compony:- Advent of east india compony into Indian soil become the last straw in to rule of muslims they came to india as the traders where they started their disruptive activities and finaly became the rulers of subcontinents PAKISTANI CULTURE Q. 1. Define Culture and Describe the salient features of Pakistani Culture.Contents * 1 Definition of Culture * 2 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture * 3 Salient Features of Pakistani Culture * 4 Conclusion Definition of Culture Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on. E. B. Taylor defines culture as the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. According to Allama IqbalCulture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society. Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture Pak istan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.Salient Features of Pakistani Culture The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows: 1. Religious Uniformity Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam. The people, in spite of some differences of languages, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam. This is the religion, which is practiced by all people of Pakistan. 2. Language A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto and Balochi. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan.Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan. 3. Literature and Poetry Liter ature is an important aspect of our cultural life. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry. They gave the message of love and brotherhood. Similarity of thought amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life. 4. Dress and Diet Dress is an important menifestation of culture. The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions, economic condition, way of living and wealth in the region.But in all Provinces people generally wear Shalwar Kameez. 5. Mixed Culture Pakistani culture is mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith. But there is great influence of Hindus and British culture on the present Pakistani society. 6. Male Dominated Society In Pakistani culture, the male member of the family enjoys the key position. Family is headed by a male member and in most cases, he is the sole source of income for other members of the family. 7. Arts and Architecture The ic onoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the se of elegant designs, based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. The Shah Jahan Masjid, Shalimar Garden, Badshahi Masjid, Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the excellent Mughal architecture. 8. Handicrafts Embroidery, leather works, glazed pottery, wood work, carpet making, metal crafts and ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmenship. They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries. 9. Recreational Activities – SportsThe recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. The games like Cricket, Hockey, Football, Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. These games reflect our cultural identity. 10. Education Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. Educational system plays a vital role in the format ion of Culture, Unity and Solidarity of a nation. It is therefore, important that the entire syllabus right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan. 11. Religious Festivals Festivals play an important part of our culture.Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country. 12. Islamic Rituals and Religious Festivals Islamic rituals and festivals play an important part of our culture. The rituals and festivals are observed with unusual enthusiasm. Obligatory prayers, fasts during the month of Ramadan and the payment of Zakat prescribed by Islam are being observed almost everywhere. Statistics reveal that Paksitanis attendance at Hajj is usually very high. The enthusiasm with which Pakistani families celebrate religious festivals is a inspirational spectacle.Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great hap piness throughout the country. 13. Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz, Data Ganj Baksh, Shah Abdul latif, Sachal Sarmast, Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent. Conclusion Culture which includes religion, literature art, architecture, dresses, music, manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture.Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual. Even in drinking, eating and dressing, we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam. So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture. * 1 Introduction * 2 Definition of Culture * 3 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture * 4 Archaeological Heritage * 5 Architectural Heritage * 6 Heritage in Fine Arts * 7 Conclusion Introduction In the development of any nation, its cultural heritage and its glorio us past play a vital role and serves as a source of inspiration and pride for its people.Our country Pakistan is accordingly proud of its cultural heritage. Definition of Culture Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on. E. B. Taylor defines culture as the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. According to Allama Iqbal Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation.It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society. Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistan i culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas. Archaeological Heritage Pakistan has been the cradle of civilization that dates back more than five millenium.Over the centuries, through successive waves of migrations from the North – West, as well as by internal migrations across the Sub Continent, Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs and Mughals came and settled in the region and have left behind the archaeological sites in Pakistan which is now being preserved. A brief review of the different civilizations which flourished and then perished with the passage of time is as under: 1. Moen-jo-Daro Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago.It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922. Moen-jo-Daro stands as most spectecular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton. It is strange that at its glory, it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses, pillared halls, markets, baths, lanes, streets and public places. Every house had walls, drains and bathrooms inside it. 2. Harappa Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920. 3. GandharaIt is comparatively a new civilization, the regions comprising Northern Punjab, Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddha's figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts. 4. Buddhis t Remains The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B. C.The Buddhist monastery Takht-I-Bahi is in N. W. F. P, it dates 2-5 century old. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishka's mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels, Stupas, quadrangles and monk's cells are also found. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture. 5. Taxila It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi. Taxila is the most popular name in history. It came into prominence during the Persian occupation. At its zenith, the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities. 6. ThattaThe main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan. The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill. Architectural Heritage 1. Lahore Fort It is also known as the Shahi Qila. It was built by Akbar. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Maktab Khana, the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions. 2. Badshahi Masjid It was built by Aurangzeb. Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi.The masjid has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble. 3. Jahangir Tomb This tomb was built by Shah Jahan. It is known as a fine building of Lahore. 4. Shalimar Garden It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The garden constitutes of three terraces, one above the other. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir, water channels and fountains. 5. Masjid Wazir Khan It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city. It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan. 6. Golden Masjid It is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan.It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautiful piece of architecture. 7 . Mahabat Khan Masjid This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar, Mahabat Khan, during Shah Jahan's reign. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets. 8. The Fort of Bala Hasar This fort was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. There are two gardens near the fort. Heritage in Fine Arts 1. Paintings Muslims brought with them the artistic taditions of Baghdad when they came to South Asia. In the beginning the walls and roofs of palaces and other buildings were decorated with pictoral and floral designs.Gradually paintings gained firm ground. Mughal emperors were fond of paintings. Humayun brought with him two Persian painters, Mir Syed Tabrezi and Khawaja Abdul Samad. They adorned the story of Amir Hamza was pictorially rendered through paintings by these luminaries. During the days of Akbar the number of painters in the court increased manifold. This helped patronize the art of paintings. The matching of colours reached its zenith. The painters render ed pictorial copies of many a book and their fine paintings decorated a number of important public buildings. Jahangir was a great connoisseur and admirer of this art.He could name the painter by looking at his painting. During his days the art of painting reached its climax. Beautiful plants, flowers, animals, birds and natural scenes were painted. The paintings of battle scenes, sieges and animal fights were painted with realism and unparalleled attraction. The art of painting has developed slowly in the Muslim of South Asia. In the beginning decorative paintings and embroidery were made on the walls and ceilings of buildings. The Mughal rulers were very fond of paintings. The traditional art of painting occupies a prominent place in the hearts of the people of Pakistan.Abdul Rehman Ghugtai, Haji Mohammad Sharif, Jamil Nagshare are the most distinguished painters. 2. Calligraphy The Muslim took a keen interest in the promotion of calligraphy. Its main reason is their deep love for Holy Quran. In the South Asian Muslim Society to be an educated and a civilized person on had to know the art of calligraphy. During this period various patterns of calligraphy were developed. Calligraphy was not confined to paper only but it got its way even on the buildings. The Masjids constructed during early and medieval periods of Islam were decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy.Aurangzeb Alamgir was the last powerful Mughal ruler who practiced the art of calligraphy. 3. Architecture and Sculptuer Architecture reflects the natural inclination and taste of people. The Muslim art of architecture was unique in every aspect. The architecture and all the miniature arts including carving, sculpture, mosaic works, tile works and paintings were called upon to build new Masjids and palaces. The Muslim buildings are spacious broad, wide, well proportioned and well exposed to ligth. Muslims introduced perpendicular design in their buildings and the upper portion of Muslim buildings is never a mere straight line.It is often traversed by balconies, domes and minarets. Conclusion In the development of Pakistani society, its cultural heritage has played a vital role. Pakistani nation is justly proud of the historical period which brings with nearly 4th century B. C and continued with the advent of Islam in the Sub Continent in 8th century A. D. Our cultural heritage expresses courage, patience and hard life. They all are in connection with life which is a fundamental part of Islamic teachings. ECONOMICS PROGRESS OF PAKISTAN * History of Economic Planning in Pakistan * Importance of Economic Planning in Pakistan * Effective Planning in Pakistan Colombo Plan (1951-57) History of Economic Planning in Pakistan National economic planning is a technical job and requires trained personnel to carry it out. The various types of decisions involved in planning are partly political but mainly they are technical. A plan when it is prepared requires a section or an authority t o implement it as a legally enforceable document. On the other hand, it requires administrative machinery for implementation, supervision and evaluation of its results. The function of planning is usually entrusted to a specialized body like planning board or a planning committee or a planning commission.It is usually attached 10 one of the national ministry, or it may have a separate ministry of its own. After independence in 1947, the economy of Pakistan was very poor. The neighbour country India did not want Pakistan to be economically stable and strong. But the Government of Pakistan took up the job of establishing the institution of planning in the country. A development board was set up in 1948 to coordinate the growth and development among different run by the government. Meanwhile, a planning advisory board was established. The purpose of setting up this board was to advise and assist the development board in the process of planning.Pakistan's economic development planning b egan in 1948. The development board and planning advisory board jointly started the process of planning in Pakistan. A six year development plan (1951-57) was prepared on the recommendations of Colombo Consultation Committee. The plan envisaged a total expenditure of Rs. 2600 million. But the initial effort was unsystematic, partly because of inadequate staffing. In 1953, the government replaced the development board with a new autonomous body called the planning board. The first five year plan (1955-60) was prepared by this board and was released in 1957.It was the beginning of systematic planning in Pakistan. In practice, this plan was not implemented, however, mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy, but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made, while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate.This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. Pakistan's success, however, partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid, particularly from the United States. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir, the level of foreign assistance declined. More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. As a result, the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70), designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor, produced only modest growth. When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971, planning was virtually bypassed.The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. Under Bhutto, only annual plans were prepared, and they were largely ign ored. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. The fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. Increased defence expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, as well as the sharp increase in International oil prices in 1979-80, drew resources away from planned investments.Never the less, some of the plan's goals were attained. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished, the balance of payments deficit was kept under control, and Pakistan became self-sufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector.It was designed to tac kle some of the major problems of the economy; low investment and savings ratios; low agricultural productivity; heavy reliance on imported energy; and low spending on health and education. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. 5 percent during the plan period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs. 350 billion.Of this total, 38 percent was designated for energy, 18 percent for transportation and communications, 9 percent for water, 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing, 7 percent for education, 5 percent industry and minerals, 4 percent for health, and 11 percent for other sectors. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sector of the economy. Total planned private investment was Rs. 292 billion, and the private to public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in fiscal year 1 988 to 48:52 in fiscal year 1993.It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. In August 1991, the government established a working group on private investment for the Eight Five-Year Plan (1993-98). This group, which included leading industrialists, Presidents of chambers of commerce and senior civil servants, submitted its report in late 1992. However, in early 1994, the eighth plan had not yet been announced, mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short terms issues.Instead, economic policy for fiscal year 1994 was being guided by an annual plan. Introduction There is no precise definition of economic planning which is acceptable to all economists and political thinkers. The idea under-lying planning is a conscious and deliberate use of resources of a community with a view to achieve certain targets of production for the overall development of the economy. As the targets of production and development are different in different economies, so the definition of economic planning is different for all economists. Prof. H. D. Dickinson defines economic planning asThe making of major economic decisions, what and how mush is to be produced and to whom it is to be allocated by the conscious decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. In developing countries, planning is considered an essential mean of guiding and accelerating their development. The need for planning arises because the market mechanism does not function well and efficiently in underdeveloped nations. The problems of what to produce, how to produce, for whom to produce and how to produce are not properly solved by price mechanism.There is generally inefficient allocation of resources among its many alternative uses. In addition to this, the spill over benefits and costs (benefits obtained or cost imposed without compensation by third parties from the production of other parties) are not taken into consideration. There is also lack of information and rapid changes in the economy. This leads to excessive uncertainties about the economic events in the future. Considering all these conditions, it is increasingly felt that price mechanism cannot be fully relied upon to maximize growth in the economy.The developing nations must adopt development planning to overcome poverty. In developing countries of the world like Pakistan, there is a strong and powerful swing towards planning. The importance of economic planning can be looked from these perspective. 1. Decisions of the Planning Authority are Superior The planning authority has a better insight into the economic problems of the country. It can mobilize and utilize the available resources in the best interest of its citizens. 2. Coordinated Programmed In a country there are millions of persons who are engaged in economic activities for earning profit.The decisions taken by some of most of them may be short sighted, irrational, self frustrating and socially disastrous. If machinery is created to coordinate the working of the businessmen, the economy can be set on the right lines and the country can progress at the maximum possible rate of growth. 3. Eliminating Business Fluctuations All the market economies of the world have faced and are passing through various phases of trade cycle. The period of prosperity is followed by a period of low activity. Planning has proved to be a powerful instrument in eliminating business fluctuations. . Reducing Economic Inequalities In the capitalist countries, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. This has created social bitterness and heart burning among the have not. Planning has proved to be an effective weapon in reducing the shocking inequalities in income. 5. Provision of Job Opportunities With the aid of planning, the resources of country are utilized to the ma ximum. All the able bodied persons are gainfully employed. There is also security of income, tenure and employment. 6. Elimination of Wasteful CompetitionPlanning is also advocated on the ground that it eliminates wasteful competition among the produces on advertisment, salesmanship etc. There is also no duplication of staff and machinery as it is the market economy. 7. Proper Distribution of Resources In the market economy, the resources of the country are utilized for the production of only those commodities which yield more profits. The items may be cream, powder, lipstick, fridge, car, cloth etc. In a planned economy, however, will be proper distribution of resources, between the production of essential and non-essential goods. 8. Prevents Artificial ShortagesIn an unplanned economy, the industrialists and businessmen withhold the supply of goods and create artificial scarcity with a view to making profits. Planning discourages such malpractices and through planned production an d proper supply of goods, the prices of the commodities are not allowed to fluctuate. The formation of trusts, cartels, patents, price agreement, market sharing etc is completely banned. 9. Keeping down the Social Costs In a market economy, the social costs which normally take the form of industrial diseases, industrial accidents, smoke atmosphere, overcrowding, cyclical unemployment etc. re passed on to the society as a whole by the capitalists. By planning, it is possible to eliminate or keep down these social costs by taking over the industries and extending the range of public ownership into various sectors of economy. 10. Creating Favourable Terms of Trade If the terms of trade are persistently unfavourable, it adversely affects the rate of economic growth of the country. The state, through planning can control the volume and direction of foreign trade, so that the terms of trade remain favourable and the country moves rapidly on the path of economic development. 11.Making Majo r Economic Changes In a free enterprise economy the market mechanism fails to create major economic changes such as industrial revolution, rationalization movement in the country. The government measures facilitate, stimulate, guide and control the means of production through planning. 12. High Rate of Capital Accumulation As planning makes optimum allocation of a country's resources, it can, therefore, secure for greater rate of capital accumulation than is possible in a market economy. However, Pakistan is an under developed country and economic planning is necessary to boosts its resources.This economic planning should be long-term because annual economic development plans cannot offer satisfactory results. That's the period of development plans is usually kept five years. All developments plans of Pakistan are of five years. Except that twenty and fifteen years perspective plans were also made. ECONOMICS OF PAKISTAN Q. 1. Discuss the main characteristics of the Economy of Pakist an? Introduction Islamic Republic of Pakistan is an under developed country. The characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are almost the same of the economy of any under developed country.The main characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are as follows. 1. Border of International Debt Most of the developing countries are depending on foreign economic assistance to meet the short fall in domestic savings and for quickening the pace of economic developement. As the year pass, the amount of foreign loans is increasing. The liability of debt servicing has increased manifold. In Pakistan, debt service payments amount to 2309 million dollars in 1996-97 which is a heavy burden. 2. Low per Capital Income Majority of the people living in developing countries are poverty ridden.Poverty is reflected in low per capital income. People live in unsanitary conditions. Service like health, education expand very slowly. In short, mostly the people in LDCs (less developed countries) are ill-fed, i ll-clothed, ill-housed and ill-educated. People here are involved in misery-go-round. In Pakistan the per capital income at current market prices is Rs. 18,320 in 1996-97 (470 dollars). 3. Agriculture, the Main Occupation In developing countries two third or even more of the people live in rural areas. Their main occupation is agriculture which is in a backward stage. The average land holding and the yield per acre is low.The peasants mostly live at a subsistence level. As far as Pakistan is concerned agriculture contributes 25% of GDP. 4. Dualistic Economy The economies of developing countries are characterized by dualism. Dualism refers to economic and social division in the economy. For instance, in the developing countries one is the market economy and the other is the subsistence economy. Both the economies exist side by side. In and around the city, there is a market economy which is well developed. Ultra modern facilities of life are available here. But in rural areas the eco nomy is primitive, backward and agriculture, oriented.Similarly, industrial sector uses capital intensive techniques and produce variety of capital goods. The rural sector produces commodities mainly with traditional techniques. The standard of living of the people living in market economy is high but that of their brothers living in subsistence sector is low. The dualistic nature of the economy is not conductive to healthy economic progress. 5. Under-Utilization of Natural Resources An important characteristics of the developing countries is that their natural resources either remain un-utilized or under-utilized or mis-utilized.Most of the countries are rich in resources but they remain un-utilized or under-utilized due to lack of capital, primitive techniques of production, limited size of the market and sluggish nature of the people. 6. High Rates of Population Growth Almost all the developing countries are having a high population growth rate and a declining death rate. The dev elopment made with low per capital incomes and low rates of capital formation here is swallowed up by increased population. As a result there is no or very slow improvement in the living standards of the people. In Pakistan the rate of increase in population is estimated about 2. 7% per annum. This high growth rate is offsetting all achievements of developments. 7. Unemployment Another notable feature of developing countries is vast unemployment and disguised unemployment both in the rural and in the urban areas. It is estimated at 31% of the labour force in LDCs. The unemployment is increasing with the spread of education and urbanization. 8. Low Level of Productivity In developing countries people are economically backward. The main causes of backwardness are low labour efficiency, immobility of labour due to joint family system, cultural and pshychological factors leading to low level of productivity. . Deficiency of Capital Deficiency of capital is another common sign in all the developing countries of the word. The capital deficiency is mainly due to (1) low per capital income (2) low rate of saving (3) low rate of investment (4) Inequalities of wealth (5) adoption of consumption pattern of advanced countries (6) Higher level expenditure on consumption etc. 10. Backward State of Technology All the developing countries are in the backward state of technology. The technological backwardness is due to (1) higher cost of production despite low money wages (2) Deficiency of Capital 3) Predominance of unskilled and untrained workers (4) Dualism (5) Misallocation of resources etc These are the major hurdles in the spread of techniques in the LDCs. 11. Dependence on Export of Primary Products The LDCs are still relying on the 19th century pattern of external trade. They are mainly producing and exporting primary commodities to the developed countries and importing finished goods and machinery from them. 12. Influence of Feudal Lords In Pakistan, like many other d eveloping countries, the poor are under the hard grip of feudal lords and tribal heads.It is in the interest of the feudal lords that the poor should remain poor. NATURAL RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN Introduction Resources are defined as a means of meeting a need, particularly an economic or social need, of the people. The term usually refers to natural resources like land, water, air. Natural resources are largely unchanged materials of the land that are valuable to people and used in variety of ways. Pakistan is rich in natural resources. It has mountains, plains, deserts, fertile soils, rivers and oceans. Natural Resources are very important for the development and prosperity of a country.The important thing is to utilize them for the welfare of the human beings and development of the country economically because the progress of a country totally depends upon the utilization of the available resources. The important natural resources are described as under: 1. Soil The Soil of Pakistan belongs to dry group having high calcium carbonate and content and deficient in organic matter. These vary in colour from reddish brown in the north to red or gray in the south. These soils are generally fertile due to process of formation. The newly deposited alluvium near the river is called Khaddar and mostly consists of sand.The old alluvium of the bar uplands, called Bangar, consists of finer particles – loams. At the foot of the mountains the soil is sandy and generally becomes finer towards the plains where Khankah, limestone concentration, is occasionally found. The soils of the Thal and the Thar deserts and of Balochistan are wind-blown. In southern Potwar a thin layer of residual soil covering is found. Soil is defined as that part of the unconsolidated material covering the surface of the earth which supports plant growth. It has three major constituents. (1) Solid Particles (Salts, mineral and organic matter), (2) air and (3) water.The type of soil formed is a fun ction of topography, climate vegetation and the parent rocks from which the soil material is derived. Soil material transported and deposited by running water is known as alluvium which that transported and deposited by winds form aeolian soil. Soils formed in silt are termed residual. Soil forming process is complex and continuous. As a result, soils vary in their chemical composition colour, texture and organic content place to place. 2. Water Water is basic need of life. Human beings, animals and plants cannot live without water. Water is essential for sustaining quality of life on earth.This finite commodity has a direct bearing on almost all sectors of economy. In Pakistan its importance is more than ordinary due to the agrarian nature of the economy. The share of agricultural sector in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan is about 25%. Since agriculture is the major user of water, therefore sustainability of agriculture depends on the timely and adequate availability o f water. The increasing pressures of population and industrialization have already placed greater demands on water, with an ever increasing number and intensity of local and regional conflicts over its availability and use.Historically, the high aridity index of the country is adding further to the significance of water in development activities in Pakistan. Though, once a water-surplus country with huge water-resources of the Indus River System, Pakistan is now a water-deficit country. Surface water-resources of Pakistan are mainly based on the flows of the Indus River and its tributaries. The Indus River has a total length of 2900 kilometres (Km) and the drainage-area is about 9,66,000 sq. km.Five major tributaries joining its eastern side are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej; besides, three minor tributaries are the Soan, Harow, and Siran, which drain in mountainous areas. The famous lakes of Pakistan are Haleji Lake, Hana Lake, Keenjhar Lake, Manchhar Lake, Saiful Muluk Lak e. 3. Air/Winds Air is very important for the existence of life because all living beings respire through air. The air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide etc. These are the base of existence of ever form of life on earth. The oxygen in the air is essential for our life whereas other gases are necessary for animal and plant life. . Forests Forests are extensive, continuous areas of land dominated by trees. The forests of Pakistan reflect great physiographic, climate and edaphic contrasts in the country. The desired level of forests is 20-30 percent of the total land of a country. In Pakistan only about 4. 8 percent of the total area is forested which is very low. Forests are important in many different ways. From an ecological point of view, they help to maintain a balance in the environment by checking pollution and protecting the soil from erosion by wind or water and intercepting rainfall, particularly on sloping ground.By preventing soil erosion, the trees on the slopes of hills also regulate the supply of water to the reservoirs thereby reducing floods. Decomposition of leaves helps in humus formation, which maintains the fertility of the soil. This ensures food supply to millions of people. From a commercial and industrial point of view, forests provide raw materials to various industries e. g. timber, pharmaceutical paper. They also have recreational value, promote tourism and provide employment in the forest department.The are many employment opportunities that depend on the forests. The type and distribution of forests are closely linked to altitude. In areas above the snow line, there is hardly any vegetation. Alpine forests grow just below the snow line. From 1000 to 4000 meters, coniferous forests are found. Below 1000 meters, only irrigated plantations have good species of wood. 5. Minerals and Power/Energy Resources Minerals and power resources are the foundation of economic development. They help in giving an initial push to the r aising of production in all sectors of the economy.Pakistan has a large variety of minerals some of which have Bubatantial reserves and quite a few are of high quality. Besides rock salt, coal, iron, ore, limestone, chromite, gypsum, marble, copper, magnetite and uranium useful deposits of magnesite, sulphur, barites, china clay, bauxite, antimony ore, bentonite, dolomite, fire clay, fluorite, fuller's earth, phosphate rock, silica sand, soap stone and molybdenum are found in the country development. Semi-autonomous corporations under the Ministry of Petroleum and natural resources have been set up for the purpose.These are the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC), the Resource Development Corporation (RDC) and the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP). Pakistan has extensive energy resources, including fairly sizable natural gas reserves, some proven oil reserves, coal and a large hydropower potential. However, the exploitation of energy resources has been slow due to a sh ortage of capital and domestic political constraints. Domestic petroleum production totals only about half the country's oil needs, and the need to import oil has contributed to Pakistan's trade deficits and past shortages of foreign exchange.The current government has announced that privatization in the oil and gas sector is a priority, as is the substitution of indigenous gas for imported oil, especially in the production of power. Pakistan is a world leader in the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for personal automobiles. EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT OF PAKISTAN * Contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education * Aligarh Movement * Sind Madressah-tul-Islam contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education. Sir Syed's (1817-98) Contribution towards Muslim EducationPerhaps the Muslims of the Sub-Continent owe their greatest gratitude to Syed Ahmed Khan. He flourished in the second half of the 19th century. His talent, deep-insight, love for Islam and hard work pl ayed a major role in the revival of Muslims in India. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 to a Syed family in Delhi. He started his career as a humble judicial official in the English East India Company. Later on he served on important jobs. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan alone among his contemporiies realized that the plight of Muslims could not be improved without a revolution in their attitude towards education.The Muslims were inimical to western education for three reason. 1. They considered it inferior to traditional Islamic learning. 2. It was being forced upon them by a foreign people, and 3. They thought that an education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their beliefs. During the war of Independence he saved the lives of many Englishmen. The Government centered the title of Sir on him. Thus, he won the confidence of the British Government. After the war of Independence the Muslims were passing through a critical phase. By refusing to acquire western education they were not k eeping pace with modern times.The Muslims hated English language and culture. They kept their children away from the schools and colleges. But in this manner they were unconsciously damaging the interests of the Muslim Community. Their ignorance of the English language and lack of modem education kept them away from respectable government posts. On the other hand the Hindus acquired modem knowledge and dominated the government jobs. Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader to realize the gravity of the situation. He was greatly pained to see the miserable condition of the Muslims everywhere.He decided to devote his full efforts for the welfare of the Muslims. The first need was the removal of mistrust about the Muslims from the minds of British rulers. For this purpose he wrote – Essay on the causes of Indian Revolt in which he proved that there were many factors which led to the uprising of 1857 and that only the Muslims were not to be held responsible for it. In addition he wrote â€Å"Loyal Muhammadans of India† in which too he defended the Muslims against the charges of disloyalty. These works restored confidence of the British in the Muslims to a large extent.The Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his co-religionists. He told the Muslims that without acquiring modern education they could not compete with the Hindus. He pleaded that there was no harm in adopting western sciences and in learning English language. He issued a magazine named â€Å"Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq† which projected adoptable European manners. Salient features of the political, educational and religious contributions of Syed Ahmed Khan are as given below 1. In 1863 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established a Scientific Society.The purpose of this society was translation of English books into Urdu language. 2. During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called â€Å"Aligarh Institute Gazette†. 3. In 1869 Syed Ahmed Khan visit ed England. There he studied the system of Education. Moreover he wrote Khutbat-e-Ahmedya in reply to Sir William Muir's book â€Å"Life of Muhammad†. 4. In 1870 he issued his famous magazine named â€Å"Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq† in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. This magazine promoted Urdu language immensely. Shortly afterwards Syed Ahmed Khan wrote a commentary on the Holy Quran.In this work Syed Ahmed Khan interpreted Islam on logical and scientific basis. Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers of the Two Nation Theory. He openly declared that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. He advised the Muslims to refrain from Joining Indian National Congress. In May 1875, Syed Ahmed Khan founded Muhammadan Anglo Oriental High School at Aligarh. Two years later in 1877 this school was elevated to the status of a college by Lord Lytton the British Viceroy himself. M. A. O College Aligarh was a residential institution.It rendered great services in imparting modern education to the Muslims. It boasted of the services of many renowned scholars of that period like professor T. W. Arnold in Philosophy, Sir Walter Raleigh in English, Maulana Shibli in Persian and Jadu Nath Chakarwati in Mathematics. In 1921 M. A. O College was raised to teh status of Aligarh University. This seat of teaming played a significant part in infusing spirit of Islamic nationalism among the Muslim students. These students later on became the torch bearers of the freedom movement in Indo-Pakistan.With the view of promoting the educational cause of 70 million Indian Muslims, Sir Syed founded, in 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference which held its meeting at various places to provide a forum for discussing problems that affected the Muslims at large. The principal aims of the Conference were 1. To make an effort to spread among the Muslims western education to the higher standard. ‘ 2. To enquire into the state of religious education in English schools founded and endowed by the Muslims, and to find out means to conduct it in the best possible way. 3.To give some strengthened support to the instruction voluntarily imparted by Muslim divines in religious and other oriental learning's and adopt some measures to maintain it as a living concern. 4. To examine a state of education and instruction in the indigenous primary schools and take steps to remove their present state of decay in directing them onto the path of progress. Muhammadan Educational Conference used to hold its annual meetings in various cities where by the cooperation of local Muslims steps were taken for the progress of Education. MOVEMENT OF PAKISTAN 1 Introduction * 2 Beginning of Political Career * 3 Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910) * 4 Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity * 5 Jinnah's Differences with the Congress * 6 Delhi Proposals (1927) * 7 Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929) * 8 Reorganizato in of Muslim League * 9 Lacknow Session 1937 * 10 Day of Deliverance (22nd December, 1939) * 11 Demand for Pakistan (23rd March, 1940) * 12 Cripps Scheme (1942) * 13 Divide and Quit (1942) * 14 Jinnah – Gandhi Talks (1944) * 15 Simla Conference (1945) * 16 General Elections (1945-46) * 17 Delhi Convention (1946) 18 Cabinet Mission Plan (1946) * 19 Direct Action Day (16th August, 1946) * 20 Partition Day (1947) * 21 Leader of a Free Nation * 22 Death of the Great Leader Introduction The services and dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement need no introduction. In this movement, the personality of Quaid-e-Azam and his immense struggle made the tough pall of the foundation of Pakistan easy and finally, the Muslims of India were successful in reading their destination for which they underwent a long journey under the Quaid. Beginning of Political CareerIf Jinnah's stay in London was the sowing time, the first decade in Bombay, after return from England, was the germination session, the next decade (1906-1916) marked the vintage stage; it could also be called a period of idealism, as Jinnah was a romanticist both in personal and political life. Jinnah came out of his shell, political limelight shone on him; he was budding as a lawyer and flowering as a political personality. A political child during the first decade of the century, Jinnah had become a political giant before Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. Aziz Baig: Jinnah and his Times) Once he was firmly established in the legal profession, Jinnah formally entered politics in 1905 from from the platform of the Indian National Congress. He went to England in that year along with Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915), as a member of a Congress delegation to plead the cause of India Self-government during the British elections. A year later, he served as Secretary of Dadabhai Noaroji (1825-1917), the then Indian National Congress President, which was considered a great honour for a budding politician.Here, at the Calcutta Congress session (December 1906), he also made his first political speech in support of the resolution on self-government. Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910) Three years later, in January 1910 Jinnah was elected to the newly-constituted Imperial Legislative Council. All through his parliamentary career, which spanned some four decades, he was probably the most powerful voice in the cause of Indian freedom and Indian rights, who was also the first Indian to pilot a private member's Bill through the Council, soon became a leader of a group inside the legistature.Mr. Montagu (1879-1924), Secretary of State for India, at the close of the First World War, considered Jinnah Perfect mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecties†¦ Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity For about three decades since his entry into politics in 1906, Jinnah passionately believed in and assiduously worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. Gokhale, the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi, had once said of him, He has the true stuff and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity.And, to be sure, he did become the architect of Hindu-Muslim Unity, he was responsible for the Congress-League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact- the only pact ever signed between the two political organisations, the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, representing, as they did, the two major communities in the subcontinent. The Congress-League scheme embodied in this pact was to become the basis for the Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms, also known as the Act of 1919. In retrospect, the Lucknow Pact represented a milestone in the evolution of Indian politics.For one thing, it conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. Thus, their retention was ensured in the next phase of reforms. For another, it represented a tacit recognition of the All-India Muslim League as the representative organisation of the Muslims, thus strengthening the trend towards Muslim individuality in Indian politics. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this.Thus, by 1917, Jinnah came to be recognised among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. Not only was he prominent in the Congress and the Imperial Legislative Council, he was also the President of the All-India Muslim League and that of the Bombay Branch of the Home Rule League. More important, because of his key-role in the Congress-League entente at Lucknow, he was hailed as the ambassador, as well as the embodiment, of Hindu-Muslim unity. Jinnah's Differences with the CongressMohammad Ali Jinnah differed with Gandhi on the means of achieving self-rule. The League session reassembled at Lahore under Jinnah's presidency and was attended by a number of Co ngressmen and leaders of the Khilafat Movement. The Quaid, despite his differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Khilafatists, still enjoyed the trust and admiration of the Muslims of Bombay which can be seen from the fact that he won the Bombay Muslim seat for the Legislative Assembly that he had resigned in protest against the Rowlatt Act.Delhi Proposals (1927) However, because of the deep distrust between the two communities as evidenced by the country-wide communal riots, and because the Hindus failed to meet the genuine demands of the Muslims, his efforts came to naught. One such effort was the formulation of the Delhi Muslim Proposals in March, 1927. In order to bridge Hindu-Muslim differences on the constitutional plan, these proposals even waived the Muslims right to separate electorate, the most basic Muslim demand since 1906, which though recognised by the ongress in the Lucknow Pact, had again become a source of friction between the two communities. Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929) In 1928, Pundit Moti Lal Nehru presented a report which turned down all the Muslims demand. On the reply of Nehru report, Mohammad Ali Jinnah presented his famous fourteen points on March 28, 1929 to the Muslim League Council at their Session in Delhi. Since all the Muslims opposed the Nehru Report, these points were to counter the proposals made in the Nehru Report.This was the certainly the right answer to the Nehru report. The points were to recommend the reforms that would defend the rights of the Muslims of the sub-continent. Reorganizatoin of Muslim League Jinnah's disillusionment at the course of politics in the subcontinent prompted him to migrate and settle down in London in the early thirties. While in England, the Quaid had been watching the events that were happening in India and was saddened to see how Muslim interests were being sacrificed by the chaotic situation within the Muslim League.The Muslim League was in the hands of rich, landlords or some middle class intellectuals with limited horizons, while the All India Congress was emerging as the leading party for Indian Independence. He was, however, to return to India in December 1933, at the pleadings of his co-religionists, and assume their leadership. Jinnah realized that organizing the Muslims of India into one powerful and dynamic organization was badly needed. He performed two important tasks after his return from England, the first was to unite and activate the Muslim League as the sole representative body of the Muslims of India.The second was to continue the struggle for freedom of India on constitutional lines. Undismayed by this bleak situation, Jinnah devoted himself with singleness of purpose to organizing the Muslims on one platforms. He embarked upon country-wide tours. He pleaded with provincial Muslim leaders to sink their differences and make common cause with the League. He exhorted the Muslim masses to organize themselves and joined the League He gave coherence and di rection to Muslim sentiments on the Government of India Act, 1935.He also formulated a viable League manifesto for the election scheduled for early 1937. He was, it seemed, struggling against time to make Muslim India a power to be reckoned with. Despite all the manifold adds stacked against it, the Muslim League won 108 (about 22 percent) seats out of a total of 492 Muslim seats int the various legislatures. Though not very impressive in itself, the League's partial success assumed added significance in view of the fact that the League won the largest number of Muslims and that it was the only All-India party of the Muslims in the country.Thus, the elections represented the first milestone on the long road to putting Muslim India on the map of the subcontinent. Lacknow Session 1937 Jinnah utilized all his energies on revitalizing the League. With the assistance of the Raja of Mahmudabad, a dedicated adherent of the Muslim League, the Lucknow Session was a grand demonstration of the will of the Muslims of India to stand up to the Congress challenge. It was the Lucknow Session that Jinnah persuaded Sir Sikander Hayat Khan to join the Muslim League along with his Muslim colleagues. That development later became famous as the Jinnah-Sikander Pact.This Session marked a dramatic change not only in the League's platform and political position, but also in Jinnah's personal commitment and final goal. He changed his attire, shedding the Seville Row suit in which he had arrived for a black Punjabi sherwani long coat. It was for the first time he put on the compact cap, which would soon be known throughout the world as Jinnah Cap. Ti was at that session that the title of Quaid-e-Azam (the great leader) was used for Jinnah and which soon gained such currency and popularity that it almost became a substitute for his name.The great success was achieved the organization front of the Muslim League. Within three months of the Lucknow session over 170 new branches of the Leagu e had been formed, 90 of them in the United Provinces, and it claimed to have enlisted 1,00,000 new members in the province alone. Day of Deliverance (22nd December, 1939) The Second World War broke out in 1939 and the British Government was anxious to win the favor and co-operation of the major political parties and leaders in their war effort.The Viceroy made a declaration in October assuring the people of India that after the war, the constitutional problems of India would be re-examined and modifications made in the Act of 1935, according to the opinion of India Parties. The Congress reacted to that drastically, condemned the Viceroy's policy statement and called upon the Congress ministries to resign by October 31, 1939. On the resignation of the Congress ministries, the Muslim League appealed to the Muslims and other minorities to observe December 22, 1939 as the Day of Deliverance. Demand for Pakistan (23rd March, 1940)Quaid-e-Azam said in the ever eloquent words, We are a na tion with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calender, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation. The formulation of the Muslim demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact on the nature and course of Indian politics.On the one hand, it shattered for ever the Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian, in fact, Hindu Empire exit from India: on the other, it heralded an era of Islamic renaissance and creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participitants. The Hindu reaction was quick, bitter and malicious. Cripps Scheme (1942) Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India in March 1942, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitution. His proposal was rejected by bo th the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank.Jinnah in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League, analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that if these were accepted Muslims could become a minority in their majority provinces as well. Divide and Quit (1942) The failure of the Cripps Mission, though unfortunate in many ways, resulted in strenghtening of the Muslim League case of Pakistan. The Congress decided to launch its final assault on British imperialism in the movement that came to be known as the Quit India movement.Gandhi called upon the people to take initiative and to do or die in a last struggle for freedom, throwing of the initial pretences of non-violence. He did not consult the Muslim League or any other party and went ahead with his plans in the hope that the momentum of the mass movement would take violent forms and would involve all parties and sections of the peo ple of India. To the Congress slogan of Quit India, the Quaid's answer was Divide and Quit which meant Muslims do not only want freedom from British but also from Hindu Raj. Jinnah – Gandhi Talks (1944)The two leaders also differed with regard to the boundaries of Pakistan and how the issue of whether India should be divided at all, was to be determined. Gan

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