Thursday, July 18, 2019
Personality Attributes Essay
Locus of controlÃ is a theory inÃ personality psychologyÃ referring to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Understanding of the concept was developed byÃ Julian B. RotterÃ in 1954, and has since become an aspect of personality studies. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"locusÃ¢â¬ (Latin for Ã¢â¬Å"placeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"locationÃ¢â¬ ) is conceptualised as either internal (the person believes they can control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence). Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events in their life derive primarily from their own actions; for example, if a person with an internal locus of control does not perform as well as they wanted to on a test, they would blame it on lack of preparedness on their part. If they performed well on a test, they would attribute this to ability to study. . In the test-performance example, if a person with a high external locus of control does poorly on a test, they might attribute this to the difficulty of the test questions. If they performed well on a test, they might think the teacher was lenient or that they were lucky.  Those with a high internal locus of control exhibit better control of their behavior, tend to be more politically involvedÃ and are more likely to attempt to influence others than are those with an external locus of control. Ã They also assign greater likelihood to their efforts being successful, and more actively seek information concerning their situation.  Locus of control has generated much research in a variety of areas in psychology. The construct is applicable to fields such as educational psychology, health psychology or clinical psychology. There will probably continue to be debate about whether specific or more global measures of locus of control will prove to be more useful. Careful distinctions should also be made between locus of control (a concept linked with expectancies about the future) and attributional style (a concept linked with explanations for past outcomes), or between locus of control and concepts such as self-efficacy. The importance of locus of control as a topic in psychology is likely to remain quite central for many years. Locus of control has also been included as one of four dimensions ofÃ core self-evaluationsÃ Ã¢â¬â oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental appraisal of oneself Ã¢â¬â along withÃ neuroticism,Ã self-efficacy, andÃ self-esteem. Ã The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since has proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance 2. Machiavelllianism: Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personalityÃ psychologistsÃ use to describe a personÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to be emotionally cool and detached, and thus more able to detach from conventional morality and toÃ deceiveÃ andÃ manipulateÃ others. In the 1960s, Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis developed a test for measuring a personÃ¢â¬â¢s level of Machiavellianism. Measured on the Mach-IV scale, males are on average slightly more Machiavellian than femalesÃ Ã . Motivation: A 1992 review described Machiavellian motivation as related to cold selfishness and pure instrumentality, and those high on the trait were assumed to pursue their motives (e. g. sex, achievement, sociality) in duplicitous ways. More recent research on the motivations of high Machs compared to low Machs found that they gave high priority to money, power, and competition and relatively low priority to community building, self-love, and family concerns. High Machs admitted to focusing on unmitigated achievement and winning at any cost. Due to their skill at interpersonal manipulation, there has often been an assumption that high Machs possess superior intelligence, or ability to understand other people in social situations. However, research has firmly established that Machiavellianism is unrelated toÃ IQ. Furthermore, studies onÃ emotional intelligenceÃ have found that high Machiavellianism actually tends to be associated with low emotional intelligence as assessed by both performance and questionnaire measures. Both empathy and emotion recognition have been shown to have negative correlations with Machiavellianism. Additionally, research has shown that Machiavellianism is unrelated to a more advanced Ã¢â¬Å"theory of mindÃ¢â¬ , that is, the ability to anticipate what others are thinking in social situations. If high Machs actually are skilled at manipulating others this appears to be unrelated to any special cognitive abilities as such Self esteem: Self-esteemÃ is a term inÃ psychologyÃ to reflect aÃ personÃ¢â¬â¢s overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Conversely, low self-monitors do not participate, to the same degree, in expressive control and do not share similar concern for situational appropriateness. Low self-monitors tend to exhibit expressive controls congruent with their own internal states; i. e. beliefs,Ã attitudes, andÃ dispositionsÃ regardless of social circumstance. Low self-monitors are often less observant of social context and consider expressing a self-presentation dissimilar from their internal states as a falsehood and undesirable.